habitats + reserves

Over 50% of the world’s mangroves have been lost and continue to be destroyed at an annual rate of 1%.  [1]

Loss of 1 kilometer of a reef can result in an economic loss of up to $1.2 million over a 25-year period. {2]

Only 3% of the ocean falls within marine protected areas, and less than 1% is fully protected in marine reserves. [3]


  • Support reef-friendly businesses when traveling. Talk to your hotels, aquariums, and fishing, boating, or diving operators about whehter they participate in sustainable reef ecosystem management efforts. 



Fisheries Economics & Policy: Marine Protected Areas | Conservation Strategy Fund

Mapping the World's (Few) Protected Seas | National Geographic

Mapping the World's (Few) Protected Seas | National Geographic

Marine Protected Areas | European Commission

Marine Protected Areas | European Commission

Mangroves in the Pacific | SPREP

Mangroves in the Pacific | SPREP


Amelia Urry, Grist. This illustrated guide makes marine protected areas fascinating, October 2014.

Nicola Jones, Yale Environment 360, A Growing Call for International Marine Reserves. September 29, 2016.

Scharada Dubey, The Wire. Underwater Noise Pollution Is on the Rise and Its Effects Have Been Deadly, June 2017. 


[1] Adam Oswell, WWF. Mangrove Forests: Threats, November 2011.

[2] WWF. Fast facts: why coral reefs are important to people, April 2009. 

[3] MPAtlas


MPAtlas - "Our goal is to clarify and visualize the level of protection and implementation of the world's MPAs [Marine Protected Areas]."

National Geographic: Pristine Seas - "The Goal: Protect 20 of the ocean's wildest places by 2020."

Reef Resilience Network - A partnership led by the Nature Conservancy, "the Reef Resilience Network connects marine resource managers with information, experts, resources, and skill-building opportunities to accelerate and leverage solutions for improved conservation and restoration of coral reefs and reef fisheries around the world"

Sea Rangers - "The Sea Ranger Service is an international maritime ranger service, established as a social enterprise. The Service employs navy veterans to train youth (including long-term unemployed youth) as Sea Rangers. "

Waitt Institute - "Empower communities to restore their ocean."

Wildlife Conservation Society - "WCS uses science to discover and understand the natural world. This knowledge helps us engage and inspire decision-makers, communities, and millions of supporters to take action with us to protect the wildlife and wild places we all care about."