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habitats + reserves

Over 50% of the world’s mangroves have been lost and continue to be destroyed at an annual rate of 1%.  [1]

95% of the world's coral reefs will be gone by 2050 if carbon emissions aren't dramatically reduced. {2]

Only 3% of the ocean us within marine protected areas, and less than 1.8% is fully protected in marine reserves. [3]



Weird Fish Marine Reserve | National Geographic

Mapping Ocean Wealth: Coastal Protection | The Nature Conservancy

Mapping Ocean Wealth: Coastal Protection | The Nature Conservancy

Marine Protected Areas | European Commission

Marine Protected Areas | European Commission

Mangroves | Ocean Health Index

Mangroves | Ocean Health Index


Support reef-friendly businesses when traveling. Talk to your hotels, aquariums, and fishing, boating, or diving operators about whether they participate in sustainable reef ecosystem management efforts. 


Oceans Deeply, Background: Coral Reefs

Scharada Dubey, The Wire. Underwater Noise Pollution Is on the Rise and Its Effects Have Been Deadly, June 2017

Nicola Jones, Yale Environment 360, A Growing Call for International Marine Reserves. September 29, 2016. 

John Collins Rudolf, New York Times, Coral Reefs in Greater Peril. February 24, 2011. 

Amelia Urry, Grist. This illustrated guide makes marine protected areas fascinating, October 2014.


Coker, Darren J., Shaun K. Wilson, and Morgan S. Pratchett. "Importance of live coral habitat for reef fishes." Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 24, no. 1 (2013): 89-126.

Mangrove Science Database

[1] Adam Oswell, WWF. Mangrove Forests: Threats, November 2011.

[2] Burke, et al. Reefs at Risk: Revisited. World Resources Institute,  2011.

[3] MPAtlas


MPAtlas of the Marine Conservation Institute – "Our goal is to clarify and visualize the level of protection and implementation of the world's MPAs [Marine Protected Areas]."

National Geographic: Pristine Seas – "The Goal: Protect 20 of the ocean's wildest places by 2020."

Sea Rangers – "The Sea Ranger Service is an international maritime ranger service, established as a social enterprise. The Service employs navy veterans to train youth (including long-term unemployed youth) as Sea Rangers. "

Waitt Institute – "Empowering communities to protect their ocean."